Wednesday, 27 January 2016

C++ Operators

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An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −
  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Misc Operators
We will, in this chapter, look into the way each operator works.
Arithmetic Operators
The following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by the C language. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −
Operator
Description
Example
+
Adds two operands.
A + B = 30
Subtracts second operand from the first.
A − B = -10
*
Multiplies both operands.
A * B = 200
/
Divides numerator by de-numerator.
B / A = 2
%
Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division.
B % A = 0
++
Increment operator increases the integer value by one.
A++ = 11
--
Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one.
A-- = 9
Relational Operators
The following table shows all the relational operators supported by C. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −
Operator
Description
Example
==
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true.
(A == B) is not true.
!=
Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true.
(A != B) is true.
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.
(A > B) is not true.
Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.
(A < B) is true.
>=
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.
(A >= B) is not true.
<=
Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true.
(A <= B) is true.
Logical Operators
Following table shows all the logical operators supported by C language. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0, then −
Operator
Description
Example
&&
Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true.
(A && B) is false.
||
Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then the condition becomes true.
(A || B) is true.
!
Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false.
!(A && B) is true.
Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ is as follows −
p
q
p & q
p | q
p ^ q
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
Assume A = 60 and B = 13 in binary format, they will be as follows −
A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
-----------------
A&B = 0000 1100
A|B = 0011 1101
A^B = 0011 0001
~A = 1100 0011
The following table lists the bitwise operators supported by C. Assume variable 'A' holds 60 and variable 'B' holds 13, then −
Operator
Description
Example
&
Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.
(A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100
|
Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.
(A | B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101
^
Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.
(A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001
~
Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits.
(~A ) = -61, i.e,. 1100 0011 in 2's complement form.
<< 
Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.
A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000
>> 
Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.
A >> 2 = 15 i.e., 0000 1111
Assignment Operators
The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language −
Operator
Description
Example
=
Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand
C = A + B will assign the value of A + B to C
+=
Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result to the left operand.
C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-=
Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*=
Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/=
Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand.
C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%=
Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand.
C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<=
Left shift AND assignment operator.
C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>=
Right shift AND assignment operator.
C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&=
Bitwise AND assignment operator.
C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^=
Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator.
C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|=
Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator.
C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2
Misc Operators sizeof & ternary
Besides the operators discussed above, there are a few other important operators including sizeof and ? : supported by the C Language.
Operator
Description
Example
sizeof()
Returns the size of a variable.
sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4.
&
Returns the address of a variable.
&a; returns the actual address of the variable.
*
Pointer to a variable.
*a;
? :
Conditional Expression.
If Condition is true ? then value X : otherwise value Y


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