# C++ Operators

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −
• Arithmetic Operators
• Relational Operators
• Logical Operators
• Bitwise Operators
• Assignment Operators
• Misc Operators
We will, in this chapter, look into the way each operator works.
Arithmetic Operators
The following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by the C language. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −
 Operator Description Example + Adds two operands. A + B = 30 − Subtracts second operand from the first. A − B = -10 * Multiplies both operands. A * B = 200 / Divides numerator by de-numerator. B / A = 2 % Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division. B % A = 0 ++ Increment operator increases the integer value by one. A++ = 11 -- Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one. A-- = 9
Relational Operators
The following table shows all the relational operators supported by C. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −
 Operator Description Example == Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true. != Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true. (A != B) is true. > Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true. < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A < B) is true. >= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true. <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.
Logical Operators
Following table shows all the logical operators supported by C language. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0, then −
 Operator Description Example && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. || Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A || B) is true. ! Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false. !(A && B) is true.
Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ is as follows −
 p q p & q p | q p ^ q 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Assume A = 60 and B = 13 in binary format, they will be as follows −
A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
-----------------
A&B = 0000 1100
A|B = 0011 1101
A^B = 0011 0001
~A = 1100 0011
The following table lists the bitwise operators supported by C. Assume variable 'A' holds 60 and variable 'B' holds 13, then −
 Operator Description Example & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100 | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101 ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001 ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) = -61, i.e,. 1100 0011 in 2's complement form. << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000 >> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >> 2 = 15 i.e., 0000 1111
Assignment Operators
The following table lists the assignment operators supported by the C language −
 Operator Description Example = Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand C = A + B will assign the value of A + B to C += Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result to the left operand. C += A is equivalent to C = C + A -= Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A *= Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and assigns the result to the left operand. C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A /= Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns the result to the left operand. C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A %= Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result to the left operand. C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A <<= Left shift AND assignment operator. C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2 >>= Right shift AND assignment operator. C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2 &= Bitwise AND assignment operator. C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2 ^= Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator. C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2 |= Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator. C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2
Misc Operators sizeof & ternary
Besides the operators discussed above, there are a few other important operators including sizeof and ? : supported by the C Language.
 Operator Description Example sizeof() Returns the size of a variable. sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 4. & Returns the address of a variable. &a; returns the actual address of the variable. * Pointer to a variable. *a; ? : Conditional Expression. If Condition is true ? then value X : otherwise value Y

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